Frequency of Obesity / Overweight and Hypertension and Their Relationship with Hyperglycemia among Pregnant Bulgarian Women
Автор: Borissova, Anna-Maria I., Trifonova, Boyana C., Dakovska, Lilia N., Mihailova, Eugenia К, Vukov, Mircho I.
In Bulgaria, in recent decades, the frequency of Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity or Overweight, Arterial Hypertension, as well as other disease states, was studied in the general population but there is no data among the subpopulation of pregnant women. The aim is to analyze the frequency of Оbesity/Оverweight, Arterial Hypertension during pregnancy and look for their relationship with Hyperglycemia by means of a cross-sectional multicenter population-based study in 84 settlements in Bulgaria. Material: 547 pregnant women with a mean age of 30±5 years were studied. Methods: Body mass index (BMI – kg/m2 ) was calculated before pregnancy and at the time of the study. A classic OGTT of 75 g was performed. Plasma glucose was determined quantitatively with an enzymatic reference method with hexokinase (Roche reagent), in the Central Laboratory on the day of blood collection. Results are in mmol/l. Statistical analysis was performed using standard SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Results: The frequency of Hyperglycemia in pregnant women was 14,4% (79/547). There were 7 pregnant women (8,9%) with Diabetes in Pregnancy (DIP) and 72 (91,1%) with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Of the pregnant women, 19,7% (n=108) were overweight and 10,1% (n=55) were obese before pregnancy. Pregnant women with Hyperglycemia (n=79) had a significantly higher BMI than those with Normoglycemia (n=468), 26,1±6,6 vs. 22,8±4,5 kg/m2 , p<0,0001. Arterial Hypertension (AН) before pregnancy was found in 4% of the women, and in 2,4% during pregnancy. Regarding AH, Hyperglycemia is significantly more common in Hypertensive women – 30,8% versus 8,6% in Normotensive women (p<0,024). Conclusion: As soon as pregnancy is established, verbal screening for the presence of risk factors for Diabetes should be performed as the first step in selecting pregnant women for targeted glucose tolerance screening with OGTT to determine their status